By Viktoriya Zabigaylo & Orest Szczurko
Diet and lifestyle are both important in the prognosis of prostate cancer. Part 1 of this review outlined the harmful factors that can worsen these outcomes. Part 2 of this review summarizes the beneficial effects of exercise and certain foods on reducing the recurrence and mortality associated with prostate cancer.
Vigorous exercise such as jogging, biking or swimming is associated with lower risk of death from prostate cancer. Engaging in more than 3 hours of such exercise per week showed a 61% lower risk of prostate cancer mortality compared to exercising less than 1 hour per week. The reasoning behind this suggests that exercise affects tumor structure and the blood vessels that supply it.
Some dietary factors that were shown to lower the risk of death from prostate cancer included fish high in omega-3 fatty acids (salmon, sardines, mackerel, herring), coffee (both caffeinated and decaffeinated), nonfermented soy, and cruciferous vegetables. Eating 1 or more servings of broccoli or cauliflower per week was associated with a 50% lower risk of developing advanced prostate cancer. This outcome is due to certain compounds found in cruciferous vegetables that work to prevent the growth of cancer cells and promote their death.
Previous research has shown that tomato products were associated with a lower risk of developing high-risk prostate cancer, however it is unclear whether they are beneficial from a prognosis standpoint. Therefore lycopene supplements are not used for men diagnosed with prostate cancer in routine clinical practice because there is not enough evidence showing benefit.
In summary, this research suggests that engaging in vigorous exercise several times per week, as well as consuming more cruciferous vegetables, fish and some coffee can improve prognosis for patients diagnosed with prostate cancer.